China is located at the east coast of the largest continent (Eurasia) as well as the western margin of the largest ocean (Pacific). It has a land area of about 9.6 million square km, occupying 6.5 percent of the total land area of the world. From the confluence of the Heilong River and its tributary, the Wusuli River, westward to the Pamir Plateau, the distance is more than 5200 km. From midstream of the Heilong River north of Mohe, southward to Zengmu Shoal of the Nansha Islands near the equator, the distance is more than 5500 km. Its population of more than 1.3 billion accounts for approximately one-fifth of the world population.
China has more than 32000 km of coastline (including the mainland shore more than 18,000 km and island shore more than 14000 km), and a boundary line of more than 20,000 km, bordered to the north-east by DPR Korea, to the north by Russia and Mongolia, to the west and south-west from north to south by Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Sikkin, Bhutan and to the south by Burma, Laos and Viet Nam.
The country is marketed the following geographical co-ordinates: Latitude from about N53 31 to about N3 50 Longitude from E73 40 to 135 05
The climate in China is generally moderate with four distinct seasons, so it is a favorable place for habitation and living. In most areas it’s cold and dry in winter, with great differences through the south to the north, while it’s hot and humid in summer, with little differences between the south and the north. Precipitation decreases from the southeast coast to the northwest inland gradually.
China has the world largest population. By the end of 2010, there are 1.392 billion people (not including the population in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan province) in China, taking up one fifth of the world population. China is also one of the countries with relatively high population density in the world.
China has since ancient times been a united multi-ethnic country. After the foundation of People’s Republic of China, there are total 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the central government, the largest being the Han ethnic group.
The standard language in China is Mandarin Chinese, a universal language used by every ethnic group. The state council announced in February 6, 1956 that mandarin should be promoted and supplemented the concept of mandarin: Mandarin has Beijing pronunciation as its standard pronunciation, northern dialect as its basic dialect, and the typical modern vernacular Chinese as its grammatical standard.
In addition to mandarin there are 80 languages in this multinational and multilingual nation. Most minorities have their own languages. Even for Chinese itself, almost every region has its own dialect, which can be very different from each other. Local people talk in their own dialects while learn Mandarin at school.